Tag Archives | Argentine Tango

Have We Lost the Confiteria Ideal?

by Terence Clarke, author, journalist, and Alma del Tango board member

Dancing tango at Confiteria Ideal, Buenos Aires

Confiteria Ideal, Buenos Aires

Tango is a child of the great immigrations to Argentina and Uruguay from everywhere in the world, from the very beginnings of the Spanish conquest to the present day. The Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano writes in his Memory of Fire histories:

 “tango had been born in the corrals at the city’s edge and in tenement courtyards.  It came from gaucho tunes of the interior and came from the sea, the chanteys of sailors.  It came from the slaves of Africa and the gypsies of Andalusia.  Spain contributed its guitar, Germany its bandoneon, Italy its mandolin.  The driver of the horse-drawn streetcar contributed his trumpet, the immigrant worker his harmonica, comrade of lonely moments. With hesitant step, tango spanned barracks and dives, the midways of traveling circuses and the patios of slum brothels.” 

All those people who went to – or, in the case of black people, were taken to — Argentina brought their various kinds of music with them, and the result of all those rhythms and chords, instruments, ethnicities, cultures and sounds was a fine musical madness, from the moil of which tango came bubbling to the surface.

It was that most wonderful of cultural events, a bastardization from innumerable parents, a burst of musical languages and unusual couplings from which sprung a single, yet endlessly complicated, gorgeous flower: Tango.

The Confitería Ideal, at Suipacha 384 in Buenos Aires, is now closed for renovation. It was a grand barn of a place: musty, quite run-down, and world-famous for its tango.

There was a time, in 1912, when it was considered the cutting edge of Parisian style. Founded by don Manuel Rosendo Fernandez on the suggestion of his wife, who was French, it was a tea-room originally, and its clientele were among the most favored that Buenos Aires had to offer.  On two floors, it was one of the largest such establishments in the city and was famous for the airy aristocratic beauty of its high ceilings, marble columns, and grand chandeliers. If you were anybody in Buenos Aires in those years, you’d slide right off the social register if you didn’t pay a regular visit to the Ideal.

With time, it lost its luster for the well-to-do, and ultimately became the venue for, of all things, tango.  The dance that came from the poor and the immigrants, that is still disdained by the moneyed sort in Buenos Aires, became the very reason for going to this place.

For many years, almost every day of the week, tangueros gathered at the Ideal, starting in the afternoon and going on into the early morning.  The music was usually recorded and often memorable, although some of the disk jockeys, like many of their colleagues around the world, were stuck in the 1930s and 40s.  That aside, the opportunity to dance here – or, if you didn’t know tango, to watch here — was not to be missed.

I write in the past tense, as though the Ideal no longer exists. But that is not true.

“The Ideal never was intended to be a space specific to dancing tango,” says Alejandro Pereiro, architect of the current re-do. “It will come about as circumstances dictate, as the undertaking develops.”

This sounds like corporate architect-speak intended to prepare longtime tangueros for the Ideal’s disappearance as the singular most memorable space for tango in the world.

Terence Clarke’s new novel, The Splendid City, is being translated to Spanish by noted Chilean novelist Jaime Collyer.

 

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Students of the Month ~ Dart & Dottye Rinefort

by Lanny Udell

Editor’s note: Dottye and Dart were first profiled in 2012.  At that time, they’d only been dancing tango for three years. A lot has changed since then and we thought it would be fun to check in with Alma del Tango’s long-time devotees again. Most of you know Dottye and Dart as our friendly, loyal door managers. Here’s your chance to get to know more about them.

Dottye & Dart Rineford, greet people at Alma del TangoAs Door Monitors, Dart and Dottye have been greeting and registering tangueros who come to study and dance at Alma del Tango for many years.  Their friendly faces are there to greet you every Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and for Dottye, on Saturday as well. They love getting to know everyone.

“If we were just attending classes we wouldn’t have the same in-depth experience with people,” says Dottye. 

“It’s fun to see students improve and advance to the next level,” adds Dart. “We enjoy watching them grow and progress.”

As Performers: Dart and Dottye have performed in seven Alma del Tango student productions, five with Debbie and two with Rose (including the performance scheduled for July 6 at the Marin County Fair where they’ll compete with other dance groups.)

Those shows have included:

  • All About Tango 2011
  • Tango Tales 2012
  • Close Embrace 2013
  • Tango Magic 2014
  • Moment to Moment 2015…
  • and a showcase at the San Francisco Argentine Tango competition
    in which their group placed second 

What keeps them performing tango? “After 10 years of dancing, you can become complacent and not challenge yourself to go to the next level. Rose’s performance group has revived our focus on tango,” says Dottye. “We encourage anyone who’s interested [in performing] to do it; it helps you progress more quickly because of the intensity.”

What other changes have they noticed: Dottye and Dart agree, Debbie and John’s teaching has evolved. “Their presentation has grown and developed.  They seem more relaxed…they still have high standards, but they understand that not everyone can grasp it immediately. We ’re always looking forward to their next challenge.”

Words of advice: “We encourage people to attend Tango 1 and 2 to reinforce the basics…and to remind you what you need to do to stay on track.”

Anything else: According to Dottye, “Tango keeps our outlook fresh and youthful…it keeps everything firing—mind and body.”  

“I’d never performed in front of a group before,” says Dart. “It has brought out another side of his personality,” teases Dottye.  “It was hiding,” admits her lifelong partner.

Garden Railroad

On rare occasions when they’re not dancing tango, Dart and Dottye can be found tending their amazing backyard Garden Railroad.

Dart and Dottye are a treasure to Alma del Tango, always enthusiastically pitching in to help wherever needed. They make our lives so much easier…and fun.  They have such a youthful and joyous energy, ready to take on anything! We are often in awe watching them dance and we are very proud to be their teachers and friends.”
-Debbie and John

And, oh yes, a story about Dottye and Dart wouldn’t be complete without mentioning their award-winning costumes at the Alma del Tango Halloween party every year!

Dart & Dottye in Dorothy & Scarecrow Halloween costumes

Dorothy and the Scarecrow take first prize at the Halloween Milonga de San Anselmo.

 

 

Read Dart and Dottye’s 2012 Student of the Month profile

 

 

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Student of the Month ~ Douglas Daven

by Lanny Udell

Alma del Tango Student of the MonthDancing tango since: Douglas started dancing tango two years ago. While he was taking classes with Christy Cote, Eduardo Saucedo taught with her couple of times. When Douglas saw on Tango Mango that Eduardo was teaching at Alma del Tango, he followed the maestro to San Anselmo. Previously Douglas had danced country western and salsa but gave them up within a month of starting tango.

Why tango: Douglas finds tango challenging both physically and emotionally. “I had pushed it away for years because I thought I couldn’t do it,” he says, “but I finally tried it on a lark, and took to it immediately. I didn’t expect to fall for it so hard. Now I dance several times a week.”

Favorite part: “The potential for intimacy, when I am really connected with my partner and we move almost as one body,” says Douglas. He loves the music, especially the sadder songs. “Even though I don’t speak Spanish I can hear it.” He enjoys dancing to music from all eras, including nuevo, and favors Pugliese “because there’s so much variety in the songs.” Roberto Ruffino, a singer from the Golden Age, is a favorite.

About Debbie & John: “They were extraordinarily welcoming when I first came to the studio,” says Douglas. He appreciates that they have graduated levels. “They break it down really well and they’re very thorough in their teaching.” He also enjoys their  humor…”it’s always fun to watch the interplay between them,” he adds.

Anything else? Douglas takes classes at Alma del Tango on Wednesday and Friday and stays for the practica. On Monday, Tuesday and Thursday evenings, he dances at other venues.

  “I’m so eager to become proficient,” says the tanguero. “I feel like I’m making up for a lot of lost time.”

When Douglas isn’t on the dance floor, he is a gardener by profession. Here are some examples of his art.

Beautiful garden by professional gardener Douglas DavenBeautiful garden by professional gardener Douglas Daven

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Edmundo Rivero: The Ugly Man Who Sings So Pretty

Tango singer Edmundo Rivera

“El Feo Que Canta Tan Lindo”

by Terence Clark, author,  journalist, and Alma del Tango board member

To understand at least part of Edmundo Rivero’s unusual appeal, one must know that he suffered from acromegaly, which results from excess growth hormone after the growth plates themselves have closed. (The growth plate is the area of growing tissue near the end of the long bones in children and adolescents.) Among the symptoms of acromegaly are the enlargement of the hands and feet, and sometimes of the forehead, jaw and nose.

It is for this reason that Rivero was known by his fellow musicians, affectionately, as “El Feo” (“The Ugly Man”). His fans more accurately referred to him as “El Feo Que Canta Tan Lindo” (“The Ugly Man Who Sings So Pretty”).

From itinerant singer to tango star

Born in 1911, young Edmundo Rivero worked as an itinerant singer in the Buenos Aires dance hall circuit. He came to the notice of Julio de Caro, whose orchestra was getting significant attention for its live gigs as well as for its rising fame on records. From then on, Rivero’s career flourished until his death in 1986.

Rivero’s singing and playing were in every way extraordinary. He had a very fine, resonant bass-baritone voice, and was noted as well for the high-level accompaniment of his principal guitarist, who happened to be Rivero himself. Trained classically on guitar, as a youth he also mastered the rhythms of pampas gaucho music and was present for the rise of Buenos Aires urban tango, begun by the great Carlos Gardel and nurtured by countless other fine musicians.

Rivero was one of them.

In 1947, after many years with different bands and with frequent appearances in tango-based movies, Rivero was hired by orchestra leader Aníbal Troilo. Troilo was a superb bandoneonista who had a clear-eyed vision of the kind of musicianship he expected from his players and singers. A few years later, after all, he would feature the legendary Roberto Goyeneche as his lead singer (see my previous article titled “El Colectivero Polaco Goyeneche”) and had already hired another bandoneonista with an unusual interpretive style named Astor Piazzolla. With Troilo, Rivero recorded just twenty-two songs; one of them was titled Sur. A huge hit, it is a nostalgic remembrance of an old working-class Buenos Aires neighborhood for whose residents tango had deep emotional sway. Sur became a kind of anthem to tango itself. It is one of the most famous tangos ever recorded.

Successful solo career

Having found fame and fortune, Rivero left Troilo in 1950 and started a solo career. During this decade, a full orchestra, including a bank of violins, was seen as necessary to any successful musical career in Buenos Aires. Rivero made a bold gesture. Tired of all the heavy orchestrations, he took up his guitar and started doing tango with just his voice and his instrument (with, occasionally, a fellow guitarist or two.) These are some of my favorite recordings by Edmundo Rivero. Significant soul flows from them, especially because they are so contemplative and lonely.

Click here for a rich selection of Rivero’s music.

Terence Clarke’s new non-fiction book An Arena of Truth, on the topic of race relations, is now in bookstores and on Amazon

 

 

 

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Argentine Tango – The Line of Dance

Argentine tango, dancers following the line of dance

It’s important to honor the line of dance. In fact, it’s the first rule of tango.

by Terence Clark, author,  journalist, and Alma del Tango board member

 

The line of dance seems a reasonable enough idea. A number of couples dancing tango are asked, by custom, to dance in a more or less circular line that borders the edges of the dance floor, all in the same direction. This is done in order to keep collisions between couples at a minimum and to further the promise of dancing gracefully while at the same time cheek by jowl with numbers of other tangueros.

You would be surprised, however, at how often this custom is not observed. As a leader, you’re attempting to circle the floor in the line of dance, and some other leader in front of you is coming the other way. You take evasive action, ruining the moment that you and your partner have set up, and sometimes a bad stumble results, or a graceless, sudden stop, or an actual run-in with either that other leader and his partner, or with the poor people following behind you.

It’s even worse if you are a follower. (I’m speaking here of the traditional female role of the follower. But the same scenario exists no matter what the gender of the leader and follower may be.) If your leader knows what’s happening and is trying to follow custom despite the guy up ahead, or if your leader is a dolt and is taking you in the wrong direction, you may be stepped upon, angered, bruised, or worse. And if the collision includes the sharp heel of a woman’s shoe landing on the side of your foot and bruising or puncturing it, things are even worse.

The injured person is escorted, weeping, to a chair and ministered to. I wouldn’t be surprised if a hospital visit has occasionally been the result.

Why dancing in the middle of the circle is a no-no

As a less experienced dancer than I am now, I thought that the simple solution was to get out of the line of dance and head for the less crowded space in the middle of the circle. Two events relieved me of that opinion.

Bea, my partner, and I were once dancing at the Club Español in Buenos Aires. It was a very crowded night, and anything out of the ordinary or too showy in the dance was next to impossible. There was, however, one person who seemed oblivious of all this. About sixty, with a gut, he was dressed in a T-shirt, Bermuda shorts, and running shoes. His partner was similarly poorly frocked and porcine. He danced up and down in the middle of the floor, all the while instructing his partner on how to do tango. At least, I think that’s what he was saying, although I don’t have enough German to have understood entirely what he was ordering her to do. The search for escape on his partner’s face, however, gave me a direct clue to what she thought of his advice.

Everyone in the line of dance found this fellow foolish and invasive, and there’s nothing to equal the sound of a bunch of Argentines agreeing that someone else is a…well, as they say in Buenos Aires, a boludo.

A few weeks later, when I mentioned to Nora Olivera what I had seen, she nodded and then shook her head. “The worst dancers are always in the middle of the floor,” she said. Since then, I’ve looked out for this, and found it to be true.

It’s important to honor the line of dance. In fact, I think it’s the first rule of tango. Leave the line of dance, and you will be, so to speak, up a creek and, if she has her head on straight, without a partner.

Terence Clarke’s latest novel, The Splendid City, is available in book stores and on Amazon

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The sweet voice of tango: Ignacio Corsini

by Terence Clark, author,  journalist, and Alma del Tango board member

Argentine Tango singer Ignacio CorsiniYou may never have heard of Ignacio Corsini. But in his day, he was one of the most popular singers of tango in Buenos Aires. Noted for his sweet, high falsetto voice, he recorded for RCA Victor and other labels over a career that lasted from 1912 to 1961.

Known as “el caballero cantor” (“The gentleman singer”), Corsini also had the pleasure of being a close friend of Carlos Gardel during Gardel’s great years of world stardom. Indeed, they frequently played cards together in Gardel’s home at Jean Jaurès 735 in Buenos Aires. (If you visit this humble abode, which I hope you will, you’ll easily imagine the two maestros, sitting in shirt sleeves at a table on a warm day in the sunlit center patio of the house, trumping one another with humorous back and forth, laughter, and enjoyment of the game.)

It happens that the two men shared the experience of how they arrived in Buenos Aires. Born in Toulouse, France in December 1890, Charles Gardès was brought to Argentina at the age of three by his mother Berthe. She raised her boy on the wages she got from pressing clothes. He grew up speaking Spanish, his friends referring to him as Carlitos, and eventually was to become a street singer, Carlos Gardel, a calling that led finally to his amazing career as a stage and recording artist and film star. Throughout his adulthood, Gardel lived in the Jean Jaurès house with his mother.

Corsini: from Sicily to Argentina

Ignacio Corsini was named Andrea as a small child. Born in Agira, a Sicilian village, in 1891, he was brought by his mother to Buenos Aires in 1901, part of the enormous Italian immigration to Argentina during that time. When the boy came of age, he got jobs as a herdsman and an ox-cart driver.

These rugged occupations were not to last, though, because Ignacio could sing, and his high voice was sought after by porteños who valued folkloric music and the songs of the pampas and the gauchos. Asked once why his voice was so high, he replied,

birds taught me the spontaneity of their singing, without witnesses, and in the great scenery of nature.”

Living in Buenos Aires, you could not escape tango, however, and Corsini eventually became interested. His recorded tangos of the 1920s were instantly popular, and his recording career lasted for many years thereafter. He may have suffered from the great overshadowing fame of Carlos Gardel. But you’d never know it, listening to his voice. Corsini’s singing is a marvel, and his popularity was justified.

My personal favorite Corsini recording is the one he made of La pulpera de Santa Lucía, a kind of folkloric waltz, eminently danceable as tango. The song has been recorded many times by countless others, and it remains a signature element in the history of tango and song in Argentina.

“Era rubia y sus ojos celestes
reflejaban la gloria del día
y cantaba como una calandria
la pulpera de Santa Lucía.

Era flor de la vieja parroquia.
¿Quien fue el gaucho que no la quería?
Los soldados de cuatro cuarteles
suspiraban en la pulpería.”

“She was light-haired, and her heavenly eyes
Reflected the glory of the day,
And she sang like a lark,
The grocery-girl of Santa Lucía.

She was the flower of the old parish.
Who was the gaucho who didn’t love her?
The soldiers from four barracks
Sighed in her grocery store.”

Visit Terence Clarke’s website at www.terenceclarke.org

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Student of the Month ~ Matthew Plan

by Lanny Udell

 

Tango dancer Matt Plan, Alma del Tango student of the monthDancing tango since: Matt started taking tango classes in the East Bay (he lives in Albany) about 1 ½ years ago. But after a few months, he began looking for another studio. A web search brought up Alma del Tango and he’s been dancing with us ever since.

Why tango: A salsa dancer, Matt was attracted to the music and the sophistication of tango. “It’s deeper, and more artful,” he says. “Salsa has a fun aspect. Tango is not about fun.”

Favorite part: He likes the connection with a partner. “It feels a bit tai chi-like.” He also likes the music, both the classic and the new. He listens to Piazzola every chance he gets.

About Debbie & John: “They’re informative, conscientious, friendly…just what you’d hope for in an ideal teacher,” says Matt. He likes that they have a syllabus, it’s not just whatever. “That’s part of being conscientious, and part of the reason I come here, despite the drive.” Matt appreciates that Debbie and John don’t just focus on steps. “It’s about technique, and the idea of lead and follow.”

Anything else? “Other classes have just one teacher; for me, that’s a drawback. With Debbie and John, you learn about lead and follow. Understanding what the follower does helps me lead. I can execute better if I know what my partner is doing,” says the tanguero. Matt is careful not to get too fancy on the dance floor. “Before I try a figure I ask myself, will this improve my dance? For example, ganchos, they’re like icing on a cake. No need to rush into it.”

Alma del Tango student of the month Matt Plan in the red rock country.

Matt likes to hike in Sedona, AZ red rock country

Last word: “It takes a long time to get proficient at Argentine tango. If you don’t have patience or persistence, you move on. You have to be willing to put in lots of time.”

Eli, 4 year old grandson of Alma del Tango's student of the month

The apple of Matt’s eye, his grandson Eli, going on 4.

 

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Student of the Month ~ Catherine Layton

Catherine Layton, Alma del Tango student of the month by Lanny Udell

Dancing tango since: Catherine’s tango path has been on again off again (until now). She had her first taste of Argentine Tango at City College in 2000. Then she took a detour into salsa, ballet and jazz, before finding her way back to tango.

Why tango: “I’ve always needed to dance in some way, and for some reason tango calls to me,” says Catherine.  A former salsa dancer, Catherine had performed in New York and the Bay Area, including a Raiders half time show. But, “there were a lot of changes going on in my life and I felt the need for a change,” she says. That’s when she turned to tango.

Favorite part:  What really hooked her was the need to be so present in tango. At a stressful time in her life she found it almost therapeutic. “When the music comes on, I’m totally involved in the moment. It’s almost like a meditation. What I learn in tango I’m able to carry out into the world.”

And while she finds salsa dynamic and fun, there’s a romance and sophistication — and challenge! — to tango that always allured her to the dance. “They’re both sexy dances but in different ways,” she explains.

About Debbie & John:  Catherine had been dancing at Bay West but when it closed, she found Alma del Tango. “As soon as I walked in, I felt at home. Debbie and John were so welcoming, it felt like a family,” says Catherine.  She loves watching Debbie: “it’s beautiful to see her settle into the role with her face and body. I should be looking at her feet but can’t stop looking at her face!”

She finds both Debbie and John encouraging and supportive, “they want you to be the best dancer you can be. They’re also very generous with their time, their knowledge, and themselves.”

In addition to group classes, Catherine takes privates with John. “He has the ability to push you to the edge of what you can do…then a little beyond,” she smiles.  

Anything else? Catherine volunteers at Alma del Tango, helping with marketing, posting classes online, and collaborating with Philip Benson on fundraising projects. “Debbie and John have created something so unique, a little gem, right here in Marin,” she says, “and I want to help them keep it going.”

Catherine Layton dances tango with Philip Benson at Alma del Tango in Marin

No more fear of milongas! Catherine dances with Philip Benson at Alma del Tango milonga.

Last word: Catherine went to her first milonga on New Year’s Eve. Before that, she didn’t have the nerve, didn’t feel she was good enough yet. “It turned out fine,” she reports, “a nice mix of levels and leaders.” Now she has no more fear of milongas!  

 

 

 

 

 

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The Lost Love of Ada Falcón: Part 2

Argentine singer Ada Falcon

Argentine tango singer & film star, Ada Falcon

by Terence Clarke, journalist, author and Alma del Tango board member

In one of the most famous disappearances in the history of Latin American music, Ada Falcón, the great Argentine tanguera, left show business. Her retirement was sudden, completely unexpected and extremely strange.

She had begun to appear on the streets of Buenos Aires in disguise, her head swathed in scarves, multiple shawls hanging about her shoulders, her lovely eyes hidden behind slab-like sunglasses. She stopped recording. There were reports in the newspapers about strange nighttime peregrinations, about her odd dress, and her raving. Eventually her mother realized the depth of Ada’s distress, and took her to Cordoba, Argentina, where Ada entered the Molinari Convent of Franciscan nuns.

There is a great deal of speculation about the end of her career, the entertainment life she had known almost since birth, and the decision to enter the contemplative life under vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. Most center upon her love for the orchestra leader Francisco Canaro, because Canaro had a wife.

Evidently Falcón had been very guilt-ridden about her affair with a married man yet overwhelmed by the love she felt for him. She pleaded with Canaro to divorce his wife so that she could marry him. Canaro agreed but did not actually go through with the divorce action. He kept Falcón on one arm and his wife on the other, for years. There were family reasons, Canaro said. The Church. The need to wait for a while to keep it respectable. Careers. Obligations.

Falcón waited, until the day Canaro finally admitted to her that he would never leave his wife under any circumstances.

Falcón went to the streets and wandered, swathed in craziness. Eventually, in desperation, sheltered by her mother, she entered the convent. Ada Falcón died in 2002, at ninety-six, in the convent in Cordoba. She seldom left the place, she never recorded another song, and apparently never recovered her heart.

Terence Clarke’s new novel, The Splendid City, with Pablo Neruda as the central character, will be published in January.

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Who was Max Glücksmann and how did he influence tango? Part 2

by Terence Clarke, journalist, novelist and Alma del Tango board member

Argentine tango singer, Carlos Gardel

Carlos Gardel, signed to an early recording contract by Max Glücksmann.

 

We learned last month about the beginnings of the Argentine recording and film industries, principally through the efforts of Max Glücksmann. Eventually he was to build those industries into a business powerhouse. But Glücksmann also had extraordinary taste when it came to popular music, and he knew he was onto something when he first heard the singing voice of Carlos Gardel.

A former street singer, Gardel had made an early reputation as half of the Razzani-Gardel duo that was popular on the Buenos Aires music scene before and during World War I. Eventually the two split up, and Gardel continued on as a single, signed to an early recording contract by Max Glücksmann. Gardel was still a criollo singer whose music had a country flavor heavily influenced by the music of the Argentine pampas and the gauchos.

But he was an urban kid.

As in many great cities, there were populations in Buenos Aires that had been forced to emigrate from other countries by war or economic difficulties. There was chaotic urban noise and emotional dissociation, the alienation that comes from the break-up of families, the loss of community and the anger and rage that can result.

Gardel was no stranger to this, and his first solo recording, in 1917, was a tango entitled “Mi noche triste,” about a man sitting alone in his Buenos Aires room, crushed because his lover has just left him.

The first such recording ever made

Tango had existed for years before this, but more as a folkloric music and country dance. What Gardel was singing was urban, new, and instantly popular. Gardel went on to become the biggest-selling music star in the Spanish-speaking world, an international phenomenon of enormous proportions.

Ateneo Grand Splendid bookstore in Buenos Aires

Ateneo Grand Splendid bookstore located in Glucksmann’s former “special” concert theater in Buenos Aires.

On October 12, 1924, Gardel made one of the first live radio broadcasts to be produced from the studio of “Lo Grand Splendid,” Glücksmann’s new headquarters housed on the upper floor of his new “splendid” concert theater. (Now transformed into the most beautiful bookstore I’ve ever seen, the Ateneo Grand Splendid is located at Avenida Santa Fe 1860 in Buenos Aires.)

Gardel became a movie star so well thought of by Hollywood that by 1934 he was being prepared by Paramount Studios to become the next Maurice Chevalier. On March 5, 1934, Glücksmann arranged for a short wave radio hook-up, broadcast by Radio Splendid in Argentina –- from a studio in the Grand Splendid — and NBC in the United States.

The artists were Carlos Gardel and his long-time guitarists Guillermo Desiderio Barbieri and Angel Domingo Riverol. This occasion was memorable for a unique reason, since in fact Gardel was singing in New York while the guitarists were playing in Buenos Aires. It was one of the first such international broadcasts ever made.

Glücksmann had essentially gained control of the Argentine record industry. He did it while nonetheless becoming a hero to musicians through his practice of paying them royalties. He was the first in Argentina to suggest this, and in so doing made Carlos Gardel a world-class star and a multi-millionaire. Other Argentine musicians may not have climbed to Gardel’s heights of fame, but they all benefited from Glücksmann’s careful protection of their artistic rights.

Max Glücksmann died on October 20, 1946.

Terence Clarke’s new novel, The Splendid City, with Pablo Neruda as the main character, will be published in January 2019. A translation to Spanish by the noted Chilean novelist Jaime Collyer will appear later in the year.

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